The Led Zeppelin Frequently Asked Questions List
Part One

Contents of this file:

1 - Common abbreviations found in this file and on Digital Graffiti.
2 - Administrivia.
3 - About Digital Graffiti.
4 - What should/shouldn't I post to the list?
5 - Who was in Led Zeppelin?
6 - How and when did John Bonham die?
7 - When and where was Led Zeppelin formed?
8 - What albums has Led Zeppelin released?
9 - What videos has Led Zeppelin released?
10 - Should I buy the boxed sets? Which one(s) should I buy?
11 - Will _The Song Remains The Same_ be remastered?
12 - So what _is_ the fourth album called, anyway?
13 - What's the deal with those four symbols?
14 - What's that thing on the _Presence_ cover?
15 - What's up with the album covers for _In Through The Out Door_?
16 - What's up with (song title) (and who's Roy Harper)?
17 - Are there a lot of references to J.R.R. Tolkien's work in Led Zeppelin songs?
18 - Didn't Led Zeppelin copy (song title) from (blues artist)?

(continued in part 2)

1 - Common abbreviations found in this file and on Digital Graffiti:

BCOH = Baby Come On Home
BTW = by the way
C/P = Coverdale/Page
FAQL = Frequently Asked Questions List
FoN = Fate Of Nations
HHWCID = Hey Hey What Can I Do
HOTG = Hammer Of The Gods
HOTH = Houses Of The Holy
ICQYB = I Can't Quit You Baby
IMHO = in my humble opinion
IMTOD = In My Time Of Dying
ITTOD = In Through The Out Door
JPJ = John Paul Jones
LZ = Led Zeppelin
OTHAFA = Over The Hills And Far Away
PP, P/P, or P^2 = Page/Plant
RTFM = read the * manual (think about it)
SIBLY = Since I've Been Loving You
STH = Stairway To Heaven
TCSR = The Complete Studio Recordings
TSRTS = The Song Remains The Same
WLL = Whole Lotta Love
YFN = your friendly neighborhood

2 - Administrivia.

First of all, _DO NOT_ post administrative requests to the list. Prepare to be flamed unmercifully if you ignore this rule.

To subscribe to the list, send mail to with the message:

SUBSCRIBE zeppelin-l Your Name

Users may choose from among certain options regarding how listserv will interact with them. To change these options, you must send a command in electronic mail to saying:

SET zeppelin-l MAIL option

where 'option' can be one of:

NOACK -- Do not send me my own postings back

ACK -- Send me my own postings back

DIGEST -- Send me a periodic digest of postings

or POSTPONE -- Do not send me *anything* until I change back to one of the other three.

The default for all lists is NOACK.

To leave the list at any time, send the command

UNSUB Zeppelin-l

to *** NOTE *** If your email address has changed since you subscribed, this will not work (listserv will tell you that you're not subscribed). In this case, email the list owner and ask to be unsubscribed manually.

For help, send the message:

info zeppelin-l


If you have any questions about Digital Graffiti, contact Matt Hill, the list owner, at

If you have any questions about listserv, contact the listserv manager, at

3 - About Digital Graffiti.

Digital Graffiti, the Led Zeppelin mailing list, was created by Matt Hill at Cornell University on 10 November 1992. Membership currently stands at over 300 worldwide.

The first _known_ Led Zeppelin list was started by Mike Powers at Rutgers University in August 1989. That list was transferred to the University of Minnesota (Twin Cities campus) under the care of Eric Hendrickson in June 1990, where it resided for a time before becoming defunct. Digital Graffiti is unrelated to that list.

4 - What should/shouldn't I post to the list?

This is an unmoderated list--that means there are no regulations (attached to this list) on what you post. However, the regular rules of net.conduct apply at all times. The list owner can remove any subscriber at any time for violating the general rules of conduct, in the (hopefully unlikely) event it becomes necessary.

New subscribers should wait a few days before posting, so that they can see the general format other posters are using.

Any news about Zeppelin, its members, its music, or related topics is welcome on the list. Transcriptions of articles and interviews are also welcome, assuming you want to take the (minimal) risk of transcribing without permission. Questions about Zeppelin and related topics are _also_ encouraged--there is almost always someone out there who can answer the question. Opinion is welcome on the list, as are reviews and commentary.

A few topics and types of messages should _not_ appear on the list. It is possible that no one will _prevent_ you from discussing these topics, but there may exist strong sentiment against the topic from other list members:

--Administrative requests. The correct address is in every FAQL, and is also posted periodically by the list owner.

--Messages to individuals. Posts to the list should be of interest to nearly all readers.

--Trades and sales of merchandise. Saying, "I have a vinyl copy of Jimmy Page's first single for sale" is fine, actually concluding the deal on the list is not. The same holds true for bootlegs-- limit the use of the list to just the initial offer of sale or trade, and conduct the balance of the deal over private email. Remember that while the discussion of bootlegs is _not_ illegal, the sale of them _is_ everywhere but Italy...and that some people (and some system administrators) frown upon their existence. Respect those people's wishes when considering trades of this nature.

--Commercial postings. The list has an official policy on this, as stated by Matt Hill:

"Individuals: If you have some CDs or other Zeppelin-related thing you'd like to sell, feel free to post a list--but only post it once. Please be sure to direct responses to your private email address, not the list. If you have a long list of items for sale, give a general description of them and tell people to email you privately for a complete list. This classification is meant for people who want to sell things they have bought for their own personal use, and no longer want. Think of it as a small 'virtual garage sale.'

Commercial entities of any sort: If you have a quantity of a product that you think the members of this list would be interested in, write a _short_ ad for it and then submit it to Do NOT send it to the list at any point; if I think it would be of general interest, I will forward it to the list, retaining the right to edit all postings of this nature. Otherwise, I will return it to you."

--"Flames"--posts unusually full of "fighting words" and personal attacks, _not_ intended to be humorous or ironic.

There are also a few topics and types of messages that, while not exactly "unwelcome," may be either over-discussed or tiresome to the majority of the list. Feel free to post on these matters if you want, but remember that not everyone will share your enthusiasm:

--Whether or not there are backwards messages in "Stairway To Heaven."

--Whether or not Jimmy Page was a Satanist.

--Discussions about the relative merits of Robert Plant and Jimmy Page.

--Whether or not Jimmy Page has "lost it."

--Polls of any kind, especially best/worst song/album.

--A _long_ series of short messages, one topic per message--this kind of thing will annoy people.

--Unattributed responses...posting a message that consists of "Yes." without quoting the question one is answering is obnoxious.

--Almost any message that contains the word "sucks."

--Any misspelling of the group's name. ;-)

Use your own best judgement in each case--and certainly feel free to contribute to any such discussion if one is in progress. This is not a proscription, merely a warning.

5 - Who was in Led Zeppelin?

James Patrick Page (b. 9 January 1944 in Heston, Middlesex) "Pagey" -- All guitars, effects, theramin, backing vocals.

John Baldwin (John Paul Jones) (b. 3 January 1946 in Sidcup, Kent) "Jonesy" -- Bass, some guitars, keyboards, backing vocals.

John Henry Bonham (b. 31 May 1948 in Redditch, Worcestershire, d. 25 September 1980 Windsor) "Bonzo" -- Drums and percussion, occasional backing vocals (as on "The Ocean.")

Robert Anthony Plant (b. 20 August 1948 West Bromwich, Staffordshire) "Percy" -- Vocals, backing vocals.

Zeppelin's manager was Peter Grant, and their road manager for the majority of their tours was Richard Cole.

6 - How and when did John Bonham die?

On 24 September 1980, Bonham left Worcestershire to meet with the group at Bray studios for rehearsals for the upcoming US tour. He consumed a steady diet of quadruple screwdrivers along the way. After the rehearsals, the band retreated to Page's Windsor house, where Bonham continued to drink and then passed out. At around 1:45pm on 25 September, sound technician and Plant roadie Benji Le Fevre checked on Bonham to find out why he hadn't stirred. There was no pulse. A doctor arrived and pronounced Bonham dead at the scene. A subsequent coroner's inquest revealed the cause of death to be accidental -- Bonham choked on his own vomit after drinking the equivalent of 40 measures of vodka. Alcohol poisoning may have been involved, but was not positively determined. On 4 December 1980, Led Zeppelin issued the following statement:

"We wish it to be known that the loss of our dear friend and the deep respect we have for his family, together with the sense of undivided harmony felt by ourselves and our manager, have led us to decide that we could not continue as we were."

7 - When and where was Led Zeppelin formed?

A brief chronology:

Jimmy Page joins The Yardbirds in June of 1966, first playing bass, then dual lead guitar with Jeff Beck, then replacing Beck in November of the same year. In December, John Paul Jones does string arrangements for The Yardbirds' album _Little Games_.

In 1967, Robert Plant and John Bonham come together in The Band Of Joy. In March of the same year, Jeff Beck releases a solo single entitled "Hi Ho Silver Lining," which is backed with a Page composition entitled "Beck's Bolero". This song is recorded by Page, Beck, Nicky Hopkins, John Paul Jones, and Keith Moon. At this session Moon and John Entwistle, who are tired of The Who's infighting, discuss forming a band with Page and Beck. It is here that Moon announces that they should call the group Lead Zeppelin, because, "'ll go over like a ***in' lead balloon!" (The "a" was later removed from "Lead" so that Americans would pronounce it correctly.) (John Entwistle claims that it was _he_, not Moon, who invented the name. Entwistle:

"Led Zeppelin is a good name, isn't it? I made it up. Everybody says Keith Moon made it up, but he didn't. About four years ago I was realy getting fed up with the Who.... And I was talking with a fellow who is the production manager for the Led Zeppelin now. I was talking to him down in a club in New York. And I said, 'Yeah, I'm thinking of leaving the group and forming my own group. I'm going to call the group Led Zeppelin. And I'm going to have a an LP cover with like the Hindenburg going down in flames, and, you know, this whole business.' And like two months later he was working for Jimmy Page and, like, they were looking for a name, and so he suggested Led Zeppelin, and Page liked it, and they came out with the same LP cover that I'd planned."

This "production manager" would have been Richard Cole, which suggests that Cole was responsible for naming Led Zeppelin. However, in the absence of definitive proof either way the Keith Moon version will stand.)

In April of 1968, Page plays on Donovan's "Hurdy Gurdy Man" (with Jones arranging). Jones asks to be part of any new group Page may be forming. The Band Of Joy breaks up in May. On 22 June 1968, it is announced that Keith Relf and Jim McCarty are leaving The Yardbirds. In August, Page, Yardbirds' bassist Chris Dreja, and Peter Grant travel to Birmingham to see Plant in a group called Hobbstweedle. Plant is offered the vocalist's job in Page's new band in August, after visiting Page's home. In the same month, Dreja leaves the project and is replaced by Jones. Plant then recommends Bonham for drums, and a tireless personal and telegram campaign convinces Bonham to turn down more lucrative offers from the likes of Tim Rose and Joe Cocker. In September, the four play their first rehearsals at Gerrard Street, London. Beginning September 14 they embark on their first tour, still billed as the New Yardbirds. They record _Led Zeppelin I_ in October, and play their first gig as Led Zeppelin at Surrey University October 17.

8 - What albums has Led Zeppelin released?

This discography follows the format:

_Title_ (release date) Label (artist, if not the subject of the discography)

Song Title One, Song Title Two...

A list of videos.

Any other relevant information.

The following is by no means a complete discography, but covers the principal releases of the band in the US. Singles are, in all but one case, ignored. For a more complete discography consult Dave Lewis' _A Celebration_.

_Led Zeppelin_ (January 1969) Atlantic

Good Times Bad Times, Babe I'm Gonna Leave You, You Shook Me, Dazed & Confused, Your Time Is Gonna Come, Black Mountain Side, Communication Breakdown, I Can't Quit You Baby, How Many More Times

_Three Week Hero_ (April 1969) Liberty/Beat Goes On (P.J. Proby)

Jim's Blues

This album is noted because all four members of Zeppelin appear on the listed track.

_Led Zeppelin II_ (October 1969) Atlantic

Whole Lotta Love, What Is And What Should Never Be, The Lemon Song, Thank You, Heartbreaker, Livin' Lovin' Maid (She's Just A Woman), Ramble On, Moby Dick, Bring It On Home

This album is sometimes called "The Brown Bomber"--a reference to the color and theme of the cover.

_Led Zeppelin III_ (October 1970) Atlantic

Immigrant Song, Friends, Celebration Day, Since I've Been Loving You, Out On The Tiles, Gallows Pole, Tangerine, That's The Way, Bron-Y-Aur Stomp, Hats Off To (Roy) Harper

On some pressings of this album, an Aleister Crowley quote is scribed into the runoff matrix of the vinyl (the space between the last groove and the label). There are also some forged versions of this pressing.

"Immigrant Song" b/w "Hey Hey What Can I Do" (1970) Atlantic

US Single

This exists on cassingle and CD single as well.

_Untitled_ (November 1971) Atlantic

Black Dog, Rock And Roll, The Battle Of Evermore, Stairway To Heaven, Misty Mountain Hop, Four Sticks, Going To California, When The Levee Breaks

The original album had no band or title identification anywhere on the cover _or_ inside, with the exception of the "Produced by Jimmy Page" credit on the inside jacket and the printed lyrics to "Stairway To Heaven."

_Untitled_ (September 1988) HMV Classic Collection

3500-copy limited edition boxed version of the fourth album.

_The New Age Of Atlantic_ (May 1972) Atlantic (various artists)

Hey Hey What Can I Do

_Houses Of The Holy_ (March 1973) Atlantic

The Song Remains The Same, The Rain Song, Over The Hills And Far Away, The Crunge, Dancing Days, D'yer Mak'er, No Quarter, The Ocean

The odd colors on this album cover are a printing error.

_Physical Graffiti_ (February 1975) Swan Song

Custard Pie, The Rover, In My Time Of Dying, Trampled Underfoot, Houses Of The Holy, Kashmir, In The Light, Bron-Yr-Aur, Down By The Seaside, Ten Years Gone, Night Flight, The Wanton Song, Boogie With Stu, Black Country Woman, Sick Again

The building on the cover is at 97 St. Mark's Place in New York City. There is currently a used clothing store in the basement called Physical Graffiti.

_Presence_ (April 1976) Swan Song

Achilles Last Stand, For Your Life, Royal Orleans, Nobody's Fault But Mine, Candy Story Rock, Hots On For Nowhere, Tea For One

_Soundtrack From The Film The Song Remains The Same_ (October 1976) Swan Song

Rock And Roll, Celebration Day, The Song Remains The Same, The Rain Song, Dazed And Confused, No Quarter, Stairway To Heaven, Moby Dick, Whole Lotta Love

_In Through The Out Door_ (August 1979) Swan Song

In The Evening, South Bound Suarez, Fool In The Rain, Hot Dog, Carouselambra, All My Love, I'm Gonna Crawl

_Coda_ (November 1982) Swan Song

We're Gonna Groove, Poor Tom, I Can't Quit You Baby, Walter's Walk, Ozone Baby, Darlene, Bonzo's Montreaux, Wearing And Tearing

_Led Zeppelin_ (4CD boxed set) (October 1990) Atlantic

Selections from the studio albums, with the addition of "Hey Hey What Can I Do," a live in-studio "White Summer/Black Mountain Side," a live in-studio "Traveling Riverside Blues," and a Page amalgamation of "Moby Dick" and "Bonzo's Montreaux". All tracks remastered from the lowest-generation tapes available by Jimmy Page and George Marino.

Videos for "Over The Hills And Far Away" and "Traveling Riverside Blues" were released. The videos are a mixture of conceptual footage and carefully edited clips from a variety of live videos (some clearly _not_ from _The Song Remains The Same_--such as the Knebworth footage).

_Remasters_ (2CD boxed set) (October 1990) Atlantic

The non-US version of the 4CD set, later released in the States. Condensed "greatest hits" package of the remastered material, with the addition of "Good Times Bad Times" (not on the 4CD set). Some editions contain _Profiled_, an interview with the band.

_Boxed Set 2_ (2CD boxed set) (September 1993) Atlantic

Remastered versions of all the material not on the 4CD set, plus "Baby Come On Home," an unreleased track from the _I_ sessions.

_Led Zeppelin--The Complete Studio Recordings_ (10CD boxed set) Atlantic (September 1993)

Remastered versions of the original 9 studio recordings with the original cover art, in a case. All the "previously unreleased" material appearing on the other sets is tacked on to the end of _Coda_, with the exception of the "Moby Dick"/ "Bonzo's Montreaux" marriage. The cover depicts the inside of a Zeppelin.

9 - What videos has the band released?

This videography will cover major, _legal_ releases. Videos listed in quotations do not appear in any known compilations.

Led Zeppelin:

_The Song Remains The Same_ (1976--released 1984) Warner Video

Autumn Lake, Bron-Y-Aur, Rock And Roll, Black Dog, Since I've Been Loving You, The Song Remains The Same, The Rain Song, Stairway To Heaven, Dazed And Confused, Moby Dick, Heartbreaker, Whole Lotta Love, Stairway To Heaven

Directed by Joe Massot and Peter Clifton, recorded live at Madison Square Garden July 27, 28, and 29, 1973, and at various locations. Released to theaters in 1976. It may be reworked in the future. Page: "I wouldn't mind paying some attention to the laser disc and video, as well."

_Supershow_ (September 1986) Virgin Vision (various)

Dazed And Confused

Recorded live at Staines Studios on March 25, 1969. More songs were probably performed, but remain unreleased.

_Rock Aid Armenia_ (November 1989) Virgin Video (various)

Dazed & Confused, Satisfaction Guaranteed

"Dazed" is from the Supershow footage, "SG" is from the Firm.

_The First Cuts_ (1990)

Outtakes from TSRTS. Recalled.

"Over The Hills And Far Away" (October 1990) Atlantic Video

"Traveling Riverside Blues" (October 1990) Atlantic Video

These videos are a mixture of conceptual footage and carefully- edited clips from a variety of live videos (some clearly _not_ from _The Song Remains The Same_--such as the Knebworth footage).

Jimmy Page:

_Royal Albert Hall ARMS Concert Part 2_ (1983) Videoform (various)

Prelude, Who's To Blame, City Sirens, Stairway To Heaven, Tulsa Time, Layla, Goodnight Irene

Part of a two tape set, Page appears on the above tracks. Also see below.

"Sea Of Love" (November 1984) Atlantic Video (The Honeydrippers)

Page does not actually appear in the video.

_The Firm Live At Hammersmith 1984_ (1985) Atlantic Video (The Firm)

Live footage from two Firm dates in December 1984. Promo only-- was not released for sale.

"These Arms Of Mine" (1985) Decca (Willie & The Poorboys)

_Five From The Firm_ (1986) Atlantic Home Video (The Firm)

Tear Down The Walls, Satisfaction Guaranteed, All The King's Horses, Radioactive, Live In Peace

Extremely hard to find, even when it was new.

"Wasting My Time" (June 1988) Geffen Video

_Knebworth: The Event Vol. 3_ (1990) Castle Video (various)

Wearing And Tearing, Rock And Roll

Part of a longer concert, Page appears on the listed tracks.

_The ARMS Concert_ (1991) Rhino (various artists)

Prelude, Who's To Blame, City Sirens, Stairway To Heaven, Tulsa Time, Layla, Goodnight Irene

A single-tape version of the one listed above. Page appears on the listed tracks.

"Pride & Joy" (March 1993) Geffen Video (Coverdale/Page)

"Take Me For A Little While" (July 1993) Geffen Video (Coverdale/Page)

Robert Plant:

"Little Sister" (January 1980) Swan Song/Atlantic Video (Rockpile)

Live performance from the Rock For Kampuchea concert.

"Burning Down One Side" (June 1982) Swan Song/Atlantic Video

_Prince's Trust Rock Gala_ (1984) MGA/UA (various artists)

Worse Than Detroit, I Wanna Take You Higher

Part of a longer concert, Plant appears on the listed tracks.

"Sea Of Love" (November 1984) Atlantic Video (The Honeydrippers)

"Rockin' At Midnight" (November 1984) Atlantic Video (The Honeydrippers)

"Pink & Black" (May 1985) Atlantic Video

"Heaven Knows" (March 1988) Atlantic Video

"Ship Of Fools" (March 1988) Atlantic Video

_Mumbo Jumbo_ (1989) Warner Video

Heaven Knows, Big Log, Little By Little, In The Mood, Tall Cool One (plus additional footage)

"Hurting Kind (I've Got My Eyes On You)" (March 1990) Atlantic Video

"Nirvana" (March 1990) Atlantic Video

_Knebworth: The Event Vol. 3_ (1990) Castle Video (various)

Hurting Kind, Tall Cool One, Wearing And Tearing, Rock And Roll

Part of a longer concert, Plant appears on the listed tracks.

_The Freddie Mercury Tribute Concert_ (1992) Buena Vista Home Video (various)

Kashmir intro, Crazy Little Thing Called Love

Plant also performed Thank You and Innuendo, though they do not appear on the video.

"Calling To You" (June 1993) Atlantic Video

"29 Palms" (1993) Atlantic Video

"I Believe" (1993) Atlantic Video

John Paul Jones:

_Give My Regards To Broad Street_ (1988) CBS Fox (movie)

Jones appears in the "Ballroom Dancing" segment.

"Do You Take This Man?" (September 1994) Mute Video (Diamanda Galas & John Paul Jones)

10 - Should I buy the boxed sets? Which one(s) should I buy?

The sound quality of the newly remastered material is incredibly improved over the original US CD releases. For that reason alone any of them are worth getting. And the combination of the two principal sets _or_ the "complete" set gives one all the studio material in remastered form. As for the "unreleased" material-- "HHWCID" is available on the "Immigrant Song" single, "Traveling Riverside Blues" is a staple of AOR radio, and there are many versions of "White Summer" superior to the one released on the set, so that should not be the deciding factor. The packaging of the sets, from cover art to liner notes, is incredible.

However, the release of the newly-remastered "original" CDs has made this choice a difficult one. Basically, it comes down to the presence of the "unreleased" material (which does _not_ appear on the individually remastered _Coda_), a choice of packaging, and the order in which one wants to hear the songs. The cost of getting one of the boxed set combinations will almost assuredly be less than the eventual total cost of the individual CDs.

The purchase of the original, unremastered CDs is not recommended due to their poor sound quality.

11 - Will _The Song Remains The Same_ be remastered?

Atlantic said no. However--Page: "That will be done in the future."

12 - So what _is_ the fourth album called, anyway?

Nothing. It's officially untitled. It's commonly referred to as Four Symbols, ZOSO, and most often simply Led Zeppelin IV. The album, as originally released, carried absolutely no band or title identification anywhere on the jacket.

13 - What's the deal with those four symbols?

Page's symbol, while _not_ standing for "ZOSO" or any combination of letters, is a mystery. It resembles the alchemical symbol for mercury, but no more is known. Plant reports being once told what it meant, but he has since forgotten. Jones' symbol (the circle with the trisecting ovals) came from a book of runes and is said to represent confidence and competence. It also appears on the cover of a book about the Rosicrucians, for reasons unknown. Bonham's (the three intersecting circles) came from the same book, and represents the man-wife-child trilogy. Some have remarked that it is the symbol for Ballantine Beer. Plant, like Page, designed his own symbol, and the feather in the circle is based on a sign of the ancient Mu civilization.

14 - What's that thing on the _Presence_ cover?

It's called either The Obelisk or The Object, and was created by Hipgnosis (the design company) to represent Led Zeppelin's "force and presence." It was not intended as a reference to the Monolith of _2001_, though the resemblance has been noted by many; including Page himself.

15 - What's up with the album covers for _In Through The Out Door_?

There are 6 different covers, each showing the same scene from a different point of view. The album originally came in a plain brown wrapper. An added bonus -- the inner sleeve, when dampened, changes color. In case it wasn't obvious, this refers only to the vinyl versions of the album.

16 - What's up with (song title) (and who's Roy Harper)?

A few notes about individual songs:

"How Many More Times" -- This is one of three songs in which Page employs the bow. There is a brief tribute/reference/inside joke during the long instrumental section where the band plays part of the Page-written "Beck's Bolero."

"Dazed And Confused" -- The Yardbirds performed this with different lyrics as "I'm Confused". The guitar solo following the bow section is Page's solo from the Yardbirds' "Think About It." The second of the three songs on which Page employs the bow.

"Black Mountain Side" -- Viram Jasani plays tabla.

"Whole Lotta Love" -- The "middle section" was created with the theremin, some recorded drums, vocal gymnastics from Plant (heavily filtered through various effects), and a lot of random knob-twisting by Page and Eddie Kramer in the studio.

"Out On The Tiles" -- The title is British slang for "a night on the town." It is Page that can be heard saying "stop!" in this song, reminding himself to stop playing.

"Hats Off To (Roy) Harper" -- Roy Harper is an English folk musician who toured (though didn't perform) with Zeppelin and with whom Page and other Zeppelin members have worked, recorded, and toured. He is probably best known for his lead vocal on Pink Floyd's "Have A Cigar."

"Bron-Y-Aur Stomp" -- "Bron-Y-Aur" is a misspelling of Bron-Yr-Aur.

"Friends" -- The synth drone at the end covers a production mistake (the original intro to "Celebration Day" was erased.) The strings in the song are real.

"Since I've Been Loving You" -- Bonham's bass drum pedal squeaks during much of this song (it's especially annoying during the intro).

"Tangerine" -- This was a Page composition left over from the Yardbirds days.

"Black Dog" -- The title came from a black dog that wandered in and out of the studio during the _IV_ sessions.

"The Battle Of Evermore" -- Sandy Denny (of Fairport Convention) on vocals. Her parts were handled live by John Paul Jones.

"Misty Mountain Hop" -- Yes, there is a mistake in this song, (in the line that begins "There you sit..."), though the band apparently felt the rest of the take was too good to replace.

"Four Sticks" -- Bonham used 4 sticks while recording this song (two in each hand) hence the title.

"When The Levee Breaks" -- The drum sound was produced by placing Bonham's kit in a stone stairwell, and hanging a microphone from the stairs a few flights up.

"D'yer Mak'er" -- pronounced like Jamaica.

"The Rain Song" -- The "strings" on this song are actually a Mellotron.

"The Ocean" -- There is a phone ringing at about 1:37 in. Don't ask why. The countoff at the beginning is Bonham: "We've done four already, but now we're steady, and then they went: one, two, three, four."

"Kashmir" -- There are keyboards on this song, but there are also real strings and horns.

"Black Country Woman" -- The sound from an overhead plane was not removed from the intro, thanks to Plant's audible "No, leave it in."

"Bron-Yr-Aur" -- A cabin where Zeppelin often retreated for composition and relaxation. It means "The Golden Breast". The unusually "thick" guitar sound is a combination of an open tuning and clever use of backward echo.

"Boogie With Stu" -- Stu is Ian Stewart, the Stones resident pianist.

"In The Evening" -- The third song in which Page employs the bow. The unusual noises in the guitar solo are caused by the springs of a fully-depressed whammy bar. The intro is based on Page's work for the _Lucifer Rising_ soundtrack.

"All My Love" -- The strings and horn sounds are all synths.

"I Can't Quit You Baby" -- The live version on Coda is from the Royal Albert Hall performance (widely available on bootleg video)--_not_ the rehearsal as is sometimes claimed.

"Darlene" -- Jones (not Ian Stewart) plays the piano.

17 - Are there a lot of references to J.R.R. Tolkien's works in Led Zeppelin songs?

Not really. "Ramble On" and "The Battle Of Evermore" feature direct references, as does the title "Misty Mountain Hop," but that's it. There is no apparent link between Tolkien's work and "Stairway To Heaven."

18 - Didn't Led Zeppelin copy (song title) from (blues artist)?

Yes, no, and maybe. Here's a partial list of covers, credited and otherwise, and sources. Thanks to _Wearing & Tearing_, Glen Cunliffe, Christopher Williams, _Proximity_, Hugh Jones, Bill Bratton, and Colin Harper for much of the info in this section.

"Train Kept A Rollin'" -- Written by Tiny Bradshaw, L. Mann, and H. Kay, first recorded by Bradshaw's Big Band in 1951. Rewritten as a rockabilly tune in 1956 and recorded by the Johnny Burnette Trio (whose guitarist, Paul Burlison, was an influence on Jeff Beck and inspired him to cover the tune with the Yardbirds). The Yardbirds recorded both the "original" tune and a rewritten version called "Stroll On" (the lyrics were modified to avoid copyright hassles) in Michaelangelo Antonioni's film _Blow Up_, which features the Beck/Page-era Yardbirds imitating the Who. The original version was often played live by Zeppelin, and is often mistakenly attributed to the Yardbirds, which is why it is included here.

"White Summer" -- Davey Graham's "She Moved Through The Fair."

"Babe I'm Gonna Leave You" -- Anne Bredon (a/k/a Annie Briggs) (the Joan Baez version was the one this was based on).

"You Shook Me" -- Willie Dixon, first recorded by Muddy Waters.

"I Can't Quit You Baby" -- Willie Dixon.

"Communication Breakdown" -- Eddie Cochran's "Nervous Breakdown."

"How Many More Times" -- Howlin Wolf's "How Many More Years," Albert King's "The Hunter," Zeppelin's version is lyrically related to a cover called "How Many More Times" by Gary Farr and the T-Bones (liner notes by Giorgio Gomelsky, one-time producer of The Yardbirds). Zeppelin's particular arrangement grew from the live jams on "Smokestack Lightning" that the Page-led Yardbirds used to do.

"Dazed And Confused" -- Jake Holmes, written and recorded as "Dazed & Confused." The Yardbirds covered it under the title "I'm Confused," with different lyrics. Page again changed the lyrics (which were originally about an acid trip) for the Zeppelin version. The version on the _Session Man_ album (on Archive) credited to the New Yardbirds is actually the Holmes original. Page: "I don't know about all that. I'd rather not get into it because I don't know all the circumstances. What's he got, the riff or whatever? Because Robert wrote some of the lyrics on that album. But he was only listening to...we extended it from the one that we were playing with the Yardbirds. I haven't heard Jake Holmes so I don't know what it's all about anyway. Usually my riffs are pretty damn original [laughs]. What can I say?"

"Black Mountain Side" -- traditional, Annie Briggs, Bert Jansch The main riff is almost identical to the riff Jansch uses in his song "BlackWater Side," though he cites Annie Briggs as an earlier source. Page: "I wasn't totally original on that riff. It had been done in folk clubs a lot. Annie Briggs was the first one that I heard do that riff. I was playing it as well, and then there was Bert Jansch's version." The DADGAD tuning used here and on "White Summer," "Kashmir," "Swan Song" (see the unreleased section), and "Midnight Moonlight" was supposedly invented by Davey Graham, though whether or not Page knew this is unclear.

"The Lemon Song" -- Chester Burnett (a/k/a Howlin Wolf) "Killing Floor," Robert Johnson ("squeeze my lemon" lyric). In some early concerts and on some pressings of _II_, the song was actually called "Killing Floor." ARC Music filed a suit against Zeppelin in the early 70's, which was settled out of court. Ironically, the "squeeze my lemon" lyric was lifted by Johnson as well--from Art McKay ("She Squeezed My Lemon"--1937).

"Moby Dick" -- Bobby Parker (music), Ginger Baker's "Toad" (drum solo). The song was originally entitled "The Girl I Love," which was written in 1929 by Sleepy John Estes and called "The Girl I Love, She Got Long Curly Hair." There are also some drum lines lifted intact from George Suranovich's drum solo with Arthur Lee's Love's song "Doggone."

"Whole Lotta Love" -- Willie Dixon's "You Need Love" (lyrics). Plant: "Page's riff was Page's riff. It was there before anything else. I just thought, 'well, what am I going to sing?' That was it, a nick. Now happily paid for. At the time, there was a lot of conversation about what to do. It was decided that it was so far away in time (it was in fact 7 years) and influence that...well, you only get caught when you're successful. That's the game." Willie Dixon sued Zeppelin (actually friends of his at the time) in 1985 when his daughter noticed the resemblance--though by this time, Zeppelin has sold the rights to their international catalog and knew _in advance_ of the suit, which was filed only _after_ the sale had been completed.

"Thank You" -- There is a striking chordal similarity to Traffic's "Dear Mr. Fantasy." There is an intriguing rumor that Page is actually the guitarist on the Traffic song, though no one involved has confirmed this.

"Bring It On Home" -- Written by Willie Dixon, though the Sonny Boy Williamson II version is the one which this bears a similarity to. The "Lemon Song" lawsuit also included language about this song.

"Traveling Riverside Blues" -- Johnny Winter's "Leavin' Blues" (music only), plus lyrical references to Robert Johnson, St. Louis Jimmy Oden, and Sleepy John Estes.

"Since I've Been Loving You" -- brief lyrical nod to Moby Grape's "Never."

"Bron-Y-Aur Stomp" -- intro lifted from "The Waggoner's Tale" by Bert Jansch.

"Gallows Pole" -- traditional, associated with Leadbelly. Page says that his version was based on a cover of the song by Fred Gerlach.

"Hats Off To (Roy) Harper" -- traditional, Bukka White (song entitled "Shake 'Em On Down"), also covered by Joe Lee Williams and Blind Lemon Jefferson.

"Black Dog" -- the vocal arrangement is very similar to Fleetwood Mac's "Oh Well."

"Rock And Roll" -- drawn from Little Richard's "Good Golly Miss Molly/Keep A Knockin'" (mostly the drum line).

"Stairway To Heaven" -- Possible (though unlikely) lift from "And She's Lonely" by The Chocolate Watch Band, which became the intro chords. There's really no way of knowing for sure. The solo chords are also similar to the chords of Dylan's (and Hendrix's) "All Along The Watchtower," though the chord progression is hardly uncommon and any direct influence is also unlikely. A more believable lift might be from Spirit's "Taurus," an instrumental from their _Time Circle_ album--the intro from "Stairway" is remarkably similar, and Page and Plant were certainly aware of the band.

"When The Levee Breaks" -- Memphis Minnie and Kansas Joe McCoy.

_Physical Graffiti_ -- The album cover is identical in concept and very similar in design to the cover of the Jose Feliciano album _Compartments_, including the pull-out card and the "hidden" photos.

"Custard Pie" -- Sleepy John Estes did a song entitled "Drop Down Daddy" in 1935, which seems to be the earliest source for this material. Blind Boy Fuller recorded a song entitled "I Want Some Of Your Pie" in 1939. Sonny Terry covered it with the title "Custard Pie Blues." Big Joe Williams also covered it under the title "Drop Down Mama," and his lyrics are pretty much identical to Plant's. There is also some Bukka White material in the song.

"In My Time Of Dying" -- Traditional. First recorded by Blind Willie Johnson as "Jesus Make Up My Dying Bed," which is more like the Zeppelin version than the well-known Bob Dylan cover. Plant has cited Josh White's 1933 "Jesus Make Up My Dying Bed" as the source for Zeppelin's version. A much closer version appears on the self-titled album by the Canadian band Fear Itself, whose "In My Time OF Dying" is credited to Ellen McIlwaine, the band's lead singer and slide guitarist. Besides many musical and length similarities, the Fear Itself version ends with the line, "My dying...cough."

"Boogie With Stu" -- Ritchie Valens. Page: "The jam [with Ian Stewart] turned into 'Boogie With Stu,' which was obviously a variation on 'Ooh My Head' by the late Ritchie Valens, which itself was actually a variation of Little Richard's 'Ooh My Soul.' What we tried to do was give Ritchie's mother credit, because we heard she never received any royalties from any of her son's hits, and Robert did lean on that lyric a bit. So what happens? They tried to sue us for all of the song! We had to say 'bugger off.'" The Valens song bears a strong similarity to Memphis Minnie's "I Called You This Morning."

"Nobody's Fault But Mine" -- Blind Willie Johnson (lyrics). Plant: "First of all, it's public domain because he's been dead so long, and secondly it wasn't his song in the first place--nobody knows where it comes from."

"In The Evening" -- James Carr has a song called "In the Evening, When The Sun Goes Down." The music is not similar.

"We're Gonna Groove" -- Ben E. King, James Bethea.

"Darlene" -- One line from Don McLean's "American Pie."

So is this theivery? Yes, no and maybe. ;-) They _did_ steal a few things outright--like "Dazed And Confused" (stolen by the Yardbirds, actually)--but anyone who understands the blues tradition knows that this sort of "borrowing" goes on all the time. Willie Dixon may have been more savvy about copyrights than his counterparts, but he was no stranger to plagiarism himself. Many of the "songs" Dixon copyrighted could be considered public domain. And in the end, most of Zeppelin's "lifts" were eventually paid for.

Besides, as was the case with "Traveling Riverside Blues," the Zeppelin version often bore little (if any) resemblance to the original. Page: "...Robert was supposed to change the [lyrics], and he didn't always do that--which is what brought on most of our grief." [...] "So, anyway, if there is any plagiarism, just blame Robert! (laughs)"


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